Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, a purely male organ.
Bacterial prostatitis differs from other forms in that it develops under the influence of microorganisms (bacteria). Bacterial prostatitis can be acute or chronic.
Prevalence of bacterial prostatitis among all prostatitis:
- acute prostatitis - 5-10%;
- chronic prostatitis - 6-10%.
Causes of bacterial prostatitis
Often this pathology is caused by such microorganisms:
- intestine and Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
- enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus;
Most of these microorganisms are part of the normal microflora of the body. If the body's protective properties are reduced, these bacteria can cause prostatitis.
Other microorganisms that cause bacterial prostatitis include fungi, chlamydia, trichomonas, and ureaplasmas.
Factors contributing to the development of prostatitis:
- irregular sex life, abstinence from sexual intercourse;
- reduction of immunity;
- hormonal disorders accompanied by a deficiency of male sex hormones in the body;
- circulatory disorders in the pelvic organs (blood stasis);
- sexually transmitted diseases.
The following also contribute to the development of chronic bacterial prostatitis:
- systematic untimely emptying of the bladder;
- bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking);
- concomitant diseases of the urinary system (eg, pyelonephritis);
- sedentary lifestyle.
Symptoms of bacterial prostatitis
Acute prostatitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- general intoxication (weakness, chills, fever);
- pain in the groin and perineum;
- frequent and painful urination, especially at night;
- urinary excretion may be difficult, rarely acute urinary retention may develop;
- sometimes a purulent whitish or colorless discharge appears from the urethra.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is asymptomatic or the clinical picture is blurred during remission. When the disease worsens, its symptoms are similar to the symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis. Erectile dysfunction may develop in chronic bacterial prostatitis.
Diagnosis of bacterial prostatitis
The diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis is made when:
- characteristic complaints described above;
- the prostate gland is edematous and painful during digital rectal examination;
- an increase in the number of leukocytes and an acceleration of ESR are observed in the whole blood test;
- a general analysis of the urine may reveal a large number of leukocytes;
- also confirms the diagnosis of prostate ultrasound.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis usually has no symptoms during remission.
Bacteria and white blood cells are found in the tissues of the prostate gland to confirm chronic bacterial prostatitis. To do this, prepare a swab from the secretion of the prostate gland, which is then examined under a microscope. With bacterial prostatitis, there will be an increase in the number of leukocytes in the smear.
Urine or prostatic secretions are also injected into the culture medium to determine the growth of bacteria and their sensitivity to antibiotics.
Another way to diagnose chronic prostatitis is to determine the titer of a specific prostate antigen (PSA).
Complications of bacterial prostatitis
The most common complication of acute bacterial prostatitis is the transition to a chronic form. This is helped by the late start of treatment, interruption of the course of treatment, irregular intake of drugs.
Also, bacterial prostatitis can be complicated by the appearance of a prostate abscess or fistula.
Prevention of bacterial prostatitis
The main task in chronic bacterial prostatitis is to prevent exacerbation of the disease or reduce the number of relapses. This can be achieved by following the following principles:
- It is necessary to prevent the overflow of the bladder.
- Wear airy to avoid getting cold.
- Sex life should be regular, but not too long and excessive sexual activity is harmful. Prolonged or interrupted sexual intercourse can also lead to exacerbation of chronic prostatitis.
- You need to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases during casual sex.
- Avoid alcohol and spicy foods.
- Do not wear tight clothing (especially underwear).
Treatment of bacterial prostatitis
The main drugs used in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis are broad-spectrum antibiotics. The duration of antibiotics is 2-8 weeks, depending on the clinical picture of the disease and the presence of concomitant diseases.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are also prescribed for chronic bacterial prostatitis.
Prostate massage is prescribed to speed recovery and also increase the therapeutic effect in chronic prostatitis. This procedure helps to clean the hard-to-reach areas of the prostate from microorganisms. However, it is in these areas that bacteria stagnate and multiply, leading to the development of chronic bacterial prostatitis.